Business, Commercial, and Corporate Law

Hajj Legal Advisors excels in navigating the intricacies of corporate matters, encompassing areas like structuring and restructuring, insolvency and recovery, and all facets of business, commercial, and corporate law.
Our accomplished legal professionals possess the acumen to oversee a diverse array of operations, including mergers and acquisitions, private equity and joint ventures, public takeovers, initial public offerings (IPOs), and public-private partnerships (PPPs), among others.
Moreover, at HAJJ LEGAL ADVISORS, we are recognized for our proficiency in managing both family and corporate wealth, offering comprehensive wealth structuring services.
With a dedicated team of experts in the fields of law, taxation, and accounting, HAJJ LEGAL ADVISORS delivers holistic business solutions across multiple jurisdictions, meticulously tailored to meet the specific demands and satisfaction of our clients.

Companies & Business Formation in Lebanon

Selecting the ideal corporate structure in Lebanon involves considering a multitude of factors, including the company’s purpose, partner count, capital requirements, tax implications, revenue goals, and more. At Hajj Legal Advisors, we provide expert guidance to help you make informed choices when forming your business entity in Lebanon.
Why Choose Lebanon for Company Formation?

Lebanese companies offer full ownership to foreign investors, making it an attractive destination for business ventures. It’s important to note that, in accordance with Lebanese attorney ethics, legal representation is mandatory when establishing a company in Lebanon, regardless of the initial capital investment.
To determine the most suitable form of business entity for your unique vision and objectives, reach out to our corporate department at our law firm.

Here’s a quick overview of the most common types of companies:

1. Partnership (General or Limited) Partnerships consist of two or more individuals. Each partner personally contributes to the company, and they are collectively responsible for the company’s debts and obligations. There’s no minimum required capital, but registration in the commercial register is essential for businesses engaging in commercial activities. The company name typically includes the names of one or all partners, usually followed by ‘and Co.’
Partnerships can further be categorized into:
a. Partnership in Commendam (Société en Commandite Simple – SCS) – General partners manage the business and are liable for all obligations. – Limited or silent partners contribute financially and don’t engage in management; their liability is limited to their contribution.
b. Co-Partnership (Société en Participation) A co-partnership is a confidential partnership designed for specific projects. Since it’s secret, it remains unregistered. An association agreement outlines the partners’ rights, obligations, and profit-sharing, with each party responsible for their own liabilities.

2. Limited Liability Company (Société à Responsabilité Limitée) – SARL A limited liability company can consist of one to twenty members, and recent law amendments allow single-member SARLs. Its trade name is typically anonymous, followed by SARL. The capital, equivalent to 5,000,000 Lebanese Pounds, must be fully paid. Each partner’s liability is strictly limited to their share’s value, which must be deposited in a bank under the company’s name. Certain activities, such as banking and insurance, are restricted. Legal incapacity or bankruptcy of a member does not dissolve the company.

3. Joint Stock Company (Société Anonyme Libanaise) – SAL A joint stock company is established by three or more individuals with a minimum authorized capital of 30 million LBP. Shareholders have a say in company management, and their shares are transferable. Each shareholder’s liability is limited to their share value, and the company must maintain a statutory reserve fund. Auditors must be appointed.
Lebanese law permits foreign interest in joint stock companies with some conditions, including the requirement for Lebanese members on the board of directors. Real estate acquisition restrictions apply to specific sectors. Companies can issue shares and convertible bonds, but individuals with certain legal records or recent insolvencies are barred from participation.
These companies are managed by a board of directors consisting of three to twelve members. The board elects a chairman, and shareholder meetings are held annually to discuss accounts, dividends, appoint administrators, and make decisions in the company’s interest.

4. Branch Offices Foreign companies can operate in Lebanon by establishing local branches or representative offices. To create a branch office, the foreign company’s Board of Directors must issue a proxy authorizing a person in Lebanon to handle registration, representation, and necessary tasks. Documents needed include the company’s articles of association and a resolution from the Board of Directors authorizing the branch or representative office. The nature of the office, either representative or branch, determines its permitted activities and tax treatment.

5. Commercial Representation Commercial representation is regulated by a Legislative Decree of 1967, allowing commercial agents to negotiate on behalf of their principals. Lebanese nationals typically handle exclusive representation agreements, although exceptions exist for foreign agents from countries offering reciprocal treatment to Lebanese nationals.

6. Holding Companies Holding companies are a distinct type of joint stock company, governed by specific laws. Holding companies have limited activities, such as owning shares in Lebanese or foreign companies, administrating these companies, providing loans, owning patents and trademarks, and leasing or owning real estate. Minimum capital requirements exist, and the chairman, board members, and shareholders can include non-Lebanese individuals. Meetings can be held outside Lebanon, and holding companies receive tax benefits.

7. Offshore Companies Offshore companies are a subset of joint stock companies, regulated by Decree Law No 46 of June 24, 1983, with recent amendments expanding their activities. The chairman, board members, and shareholders can include non-Lebanese individuals. Offshore companies operate exclusively in Lebanese free zones or outside Lebanon’s territory.
The expanded activities of offshore companies include negotiating and concluding agreements, offering studies and consultations, stockpiling goods for re-exportation, and various other activities. They benefit from tax exemptions and are subject to a flat annual tax. However, they cannot engage in banking operations, insurance, or generate profits from assets or services within Lebanon, except for bank account interest.
For more information on these company types and expert legal assistance in forming your business in Lebanon, please contact Hajj Legal Advisors.

Offshore Companies in Lebanon
Lebanon’s Offshore Company – Your Ideal Business Choice
The Lebanese Offshore Company presents an exceptional opportunity for entrepreneurs and businesses operating beyond Lebanon or within the Lebanese free zones. This dynamic business structure allows for a wide spectrum of commercial activities while benefiting from incredibly low taxes, irrespective of the business’s turnover or profits. Moreover, it opens doors to high-quality services provided by Lebanon’s robust banking sector and more.

Key Advantages of a Lebanese Offshore Company:

1. Full Ownership by Foreigners Lebanese offshore companies can be wholly owned and managed by foreign individuals or entities, offering complete control and flexibility.

2. Non-Double Taxation Treaties Many countries have established non-double taxation treaties with Lebanon, offering further tax benefits to nationals of these countries.

3. Versatile Business Structures In the Anglo-Saxon system, offshore trusts and related structures are prevalent. In Lebanon, these structures find equivalents or complementary entities due to the flexible corporate entities available both offshore and onshore, offering a significant margin of flexibility, efficiency, and privacy.

4. Legal Framework Lebanese offshore companies operate under Decree Law No. 46 of June 24, 1983. This legal framework has been enhanced by Law No. 19 of 2008, which expanded the scope of offshore company activities.
Before the 2008 amendment, the offshore company’s activities were primarily limited to:

  • Negotiating and concluding agreements for goods and products outside Lebanon or the Lebanese Free Zone.
  • Offering consulting services for foreign establishments.
  • Using Free Zone facilities for goods storage.
  • Engaging in real estate activities related to the offshore company’s core business.
  • With the 2008 amendment, the scope of offshore company activities was significantly broadened to include:
  • Managing companies and institutions outside Lebanon, including exporting services and software.
  • Engaging in three-sided or multi-sided trade, including contract negotiation, goods shipment, and bill reissuance for transactions outside Lebanon or in the Lebanese Free Zone.
  • Participating in maritime shipping activities.
  • Acquiring shares of foreign corporations, companies, or institutions, and borrowing from institutions in which the offshore company holds more than 20% of its capital.
  • Engaging in commercial representation or agency activities for foreign or non-resident companies or institutions.
  • Establishing branches and representative offices abroad.
  • Investing in economic projects, except those prohibited by law.
  • Creating accounts and utilizing financial services to fund company activities, whether from local or non-resident institutions.
  • Leasing or acquiring offices or real estate in Lebanon related to the offshore company’s activities.

One of the key advantages of the 2008 amendment was the removal of the requirement for two Lebanese nationals in the company’s Executive Board. This change facilitates the conditions for foreign investors and makes Lebanon’s offshore companies more attractive.
Furthermore, the chairman of an offshore company can be a non-Lebanese resident abroad and operate without a permit. The company is registered in the Commercial Register and in a special register for offshore companies.
However, it’s important to note that offshore companies cannot engage in banking operations, insurance, or any other commercial activities in Lebanon that may generate profits. Additionally, they cannot derive profits or revenues from movable or immovable assets in Lebanon or by providing services to companies located in Lebanon, except for the interest earned on their bank accounts.

Advantages of Creating/Incorporating an Offshore Company in Lebanon:

A. General Advantages

  1. Foreigner-friendly Ownership and Management: Foreigners can fully own and manage the company, with their liability limited to their shares in the company.
  2. Diverse Business Activities: The offshore company can engage in a wide range of activities, offering significant flexibility.
  3. Simplified Foreign Employee Conditions: Foreign chairpersons/general managers do not require work permits if they reside outside Lebanon. Non-Lebanese employees are exempt from work permits when the company’s total balance sheet exceeds USD 667,000.
  4. Enhanced Privacy: Full bank secrecy is maintained on all corporate and private accounts.B. Tax Advantages and Exemptions Offshore companies enjoy tax benefits and exemptions on various fronts, including stamp duties, inheritance tax, corporate income tax, dividends distribution, capital gains, interest payments, amounts paid for services, and more. The annual tax on Lebanese offshore companies is capped at LBP 1 million, providing a highly tax-efficient structure.
    Lebanon’s offshore company structure offers a unique opportunity for international businesses and investors, combining flexibility, tax efficiency, and accessibility to a wide range of commercial activities.

Real Estate Investments & Business Law Firm in Lebanon
Unlocking Lebanon’s Real Estate Potential
Our dedicated Real Estate department is staffed with a team of experienced attorneys who specialize in the complex world of real estate law. We are here to guide and assist you in navigating the intricacies of real estate investments in Lebanon.
Investment Opportunities & Incentives in Lebanon’s Real Estate Market
Lebanon has emerged as a lucrative destination for real estate investments, thanks to recent legislative changes and amendments that promote foreign investment in the property sector. These changes were enacted under Law No. 296, which was passed by the Parliament on March 20, 2001, following a proposal by the Cabinet on December 13, 2000. This law introduces essential incentives to stimulate foreign investment in Lebanese real estate.

Key Provisions of Law No. 296, “Foreign Acquisition of Property”:

1. Simplified Foreign Ownership Limits: The former law restricted the acquisition of land by foreigners to 5% in each Mohafaza (administrative region). The current law, however, offers greater flexibility. Foreigners can now acquire up to 3% of the total land area of Lebanon, irrespective of geographic location, with one essential condition: foreigners cannot collectively acquire more than 3% of the total land area in a given caza (district). An exception to this rule is Beirut, where foreigners are permitted to acquire up to 10% of the total area of the capital.

2. Increased Land Acquisition Limits: Foreigners can now purchase up to 3,000 square meters of land without requiring a decree from the Council of Ministers. However, the authorization for land acquisition for a specific project must be executed within five years, with a one-time extension available for an additional five years if requested.

3. Council of Ministers’ Decree: The law allows foreigners to acquire land exceeding 3,000 square meters, subject to a decree from the Council of Ministers.

4. Reduced Real Estate Registration Fees: One of the significant incentives introduced by Law No. 296 is the reduction of real estate registration fees. Registration fees have been lowered to 5.8% for both Lebanese and foreign investors. This 5.8% registration fee comprises several components, including a 0.25% municipality fee, a 0.3% stamp duty, a 0.1% fee to the lawyers’ syndicate, and an additional 0.1% if the registration is performed through a notary’s office rather than the land registry (the sum of these additional fees amounts to 0.75% of the 5.8% fee and has remained unchanged).
In summary, these adjustments translate to a 1% reduction in registration fees for Lebanese investors and an impressive 11% reduction for foreign investors. This not only makes the Lebanese real estate market more accessible but also offers substantial financial benefits to those considering investments in this flourishing sector.
For expert guidance on real estate investments in Lebanon and to take full advantage of the incentives provided by Law No. 296, please don’t hesitate to contact us. We are here to help you seize the abundant opportunities in Lebanon’s real estate market.

Capital Freezing Issues Amidst Financial Crises

In the face of unprecedented financial crises and the distressing scenario of bank freezing, Hajj Legal Advisors steps forward as your beacon of hope. We take pride in offering specialized expertise in addressing capital freezing challenges exacerbated by these crises. Our dedicated service is designed to assist individuals and businesses facing capital freezing issues, providing effective solutions and expert guidance to navigate this complex financial landscape.
Our Expertise:

1. Unraveling the Complexities: Capital freezing can be a bewildering and distressing experience, especially amidst financial crises. Our team of legal experts is well-versed in the intricate processes and legalities surrounding capital restrictions in these challenging times. We understand the nuances of these situations and can provide you with clear insights and strategies to unlock your frozen capital.

2. Legal Proficiency: Capital freezing issues often involve a web of legal regulations and financial intricacies, which are further complicated during financial crises. Our legal advisors have a deep understanding of these laws and regulations, ensuring that we can navigate the legal landscape effectively to protect your interests and rights.

3. Tailored Solutions: We recognize that each case of capital freezing is unique, and these crises add an extra layer of complexity. At Hajj Legal Advisors, we do not believe in one-size-fits-all solutions. Instead, we tailor our approach to your specific circumstances, ensuring that our strategies are customized to address your needs and objectives during these turbulent times.

4. Resolving Complex Cases: Our team has a successful track record of resolving complex capital freezing cases, even in the midst of financial crises. Whether your capital is frozen due to economic turmoil, legal constraints, or any other reason, we have the expertise to help you navigate the challenges and work towards a resolution.

5. Protecting Your Interests: Your financial interests are our top priority, especially when they are under threat from financial crises and capital freezing. We work diligently to safeguard your rights and assets, offering expert advice and legal representation to ensure that your capital is unfrozen as swiftly and efficiently as possible, even in the face of these crises.
If you find yourself facing capital freezing issues compounded by financial crises, you can trust Hajj Legal Advisors to be your partner in resolving these overwhelming challenges. Our expert team is committed to providing you with the guidance and support needed to address your specific situation in these trying times. We understand the complexities of capital freezing, especially when coupled with financial crises, and are dedicated to helping you regain access to your assets. Contact us today to explore how we can assist you in navigating and resolving your capital freezing concerns in the midst of these turbulent times.

“Your Trusted Business Lawyers and Attorneys – Crafting Tailored Agreements and Contracts”
Hajj Legal Advisors stands as your trusted partner in the realm of business law. We specialize in crafting specific business agreements and contracts that are meticulously tailored to meet our clients’ unique needs and objectives. Our team of expert lawyers boasts extensive experience in the art of drafting a multitude of contracts and agreements, ensuring that your business requirements are not just met but exceeded.

Our Expertise:

1. Customized Contracts: At Hajj Legal Advisors, we understand that no two businesses are the same. That’s why we offer customized business agreements and contracts that are precisely designed to fit your individual needs. Whether you require contracts for partnerships, acquisitions, or any other business-related purpose, we have you covered.

2. Legal Proficiency: Crafting effective business agreements and contracts requires a deep understanding of the legal intricacies involved. Our seasoned lawyers are well-versed in the nuances of business law, enabling us to provide you with legally sound and comprehensive contracts that safeguard your interests.

3. High-Quality Legal Services: With a wealth of experience at our disposal, Hajj Legal Advisors is committed to delivering high-quality legal services at every stage of the process. From negotiation and drafting to the seamless execution of business agreements and contracts, we ensure that our clients receive nothing but the best.

4. Tailored Solutions: We recognize that your business is unique, and so are your legal requirements. Our team works closely with you to tailor our services to meet your specific needs. Whether it’s an intricate merger and acquisition agreement or a straightforward partnership contract, our solutions are designed to cater to your distinct circumstances.

Hajj Legal Advisors takes pride in being your go-to choice for business lawyers and attorneys. We specialize in creating meticulously tailored agreements and contracts that align perfectly with your business objectives. Our legal team’s depth of expertise ensures that your business requirements are met with precision and excellence. Whether you need assistance with negotiation, drafting, or execution, we are committed to delivering high-quality legal services that prioritize your best interests. Contact us today to explore how we can assist you in navigating the complex world of business agreements and contracts.

“Taxation Lawyers Services & Expert Advice in Lebanon – Navigating Tax Matters Effectively”
Hajj Legal Advisors is your partner in comprehensive tax planning, catering to both local and international clients with diverse businesses, assets, and investments. We specialize in advising clients on the best strategies for tax mitigation, avoidance, and reducing the tax burden in the most efficient and legally sound ways. With a team of lawyers possessing extensive experience and profound knowledge of tax laws across multiple jurisdictions, we are well-equipped to provide expert guidance in the realm of taxation.

Our Expertise:

1. Tax Planning Excellence: At Hajj Legal Advisors, we excel in devising tax planning strategies that are tailored to meet the specific needs of our clients. Whether you’re an individual or a business entity, we provide expert advice to optimize your tax obligations while staying fully compliant with the law.

2. International Jurisdiction Knowledge: Our lawyers boast a deep understanding of tax laws in various jurisdictions, enabling us to have full control and command of the intricate world of international taxation. We provide guidance on leveraging beneficial international tax conventions, especially those that Lebanon has in place, to ensure the most favorable tax outcomes.

3. Tax-Efficient Structures: We establish tax-efficient structures that can take advantage of Lebanon’s specific corporate entities with favorable tax regimes. Additionally, these structures may benefit from Lebanon’s strict banking secrecy and privacy, offering comprehensive solutions for individuals and businesses.

4. Comprehensive Tax Services: Our tax department offers a range of services, including nominee shareholders/directors, domiciliation, registered address services, and company legal secretarial support. We also facilitate connections with Lebanese and international institutions, banks, and other business partners, ensuring a seamless and efficient experience for our clients.

5. Local and International Expertise: Hajj Legal Advisors’ Tax Law team is well-versed in addressing both local and international taxation issues. This versatile expertise allows our lawyers to provide tailored tax solutions that meet the unique needs of individuals and businesses alike.

When it comes to tax matters in Lebanon, Hajj Legal Advisors is your trusted resource for expert advice and services. Our commitment to finding the best tax solutions for our clients, whether local or international, is unwavering. We leverage our extensive knowledge and experience to provide you with effective tax planning and tax mitigation strategies that align with your individual and business needs. Contact us today to explore how we can assist you in navigating the complex world of taxation and ensuring that you achieve the most favorable outcomes.

“Your Trusted Litigation & Dispute Resolution Law Firm in Lebanon – Over 50 Years of Experience”
Hajj Legal Advisors boasts a wealth of experience, spanning over half a century, in the fields of litigation and alternative dispute resolution. Throughout our history, we have successfully resolved significant cases within Lebanon and the broader MENA region. Our expertise in navigating complex legal disputes sets us apart as a leading law firm dedicated to ensuring that our clients find effective solutions to their conflicts.
Our Expertise:

1. Seasoned Litigators: With over five decades of experience in litigation, Hajj Legal Advisors’ attorneys have honed their skills in the courtroom. We specialize in representing our clients’ interests with tenacity, ensuring that their rights and objectives are protected.

2. Comprehensive Evaluation: Our legal experts carefully evaluate each case brought before us, providing our clients with an in-depth analysis of the resolution options available. This allows us to determine the most suitable and cost-effective means of resolving the conflict.

3. Informed Decision-Making: At Hajj Legal Advisors, we believe in empowering our clients with the information they need to make informed decisions. We keep our clients informed throughout the dispute resolution process and assess the possibility of reaching a favorable settlement with the opposing party.

4. Ongoing Client Protection: Our dedicated team conducts a continual and thorough assessment of each case, ensuring that our clients’ interests are constantly monitored and protected. We are committed to preserving the well-being and objectives of our clients throughout the legal process.

Hajj Legal Advisors stands as your trusted partner in litigation and dispute resolution, offering over 20 years of invaluable experience. Our seasoned litigators are committed to providing expert legal representation in Lebanon. We take pride in evaluating each case meticulously, advising on the best resolution options, and fostering an environment where our clients can make informed decisions. As we protect and assess your interests continually, you can rest assured that your case is in the capable hands of our experienced legal team. Contact us today to discover how we can assist you in achieving the most effective resolution to your legal disputes.

“Personal Status Law in Lebanon – Understanding Marriage, Divorce, and Inheritance”
Marriage Law & Lawyers in Lebanon
How to Get Married in Lebanon? Lebanon does not offer civil marriages within its borders, but it does recognize civil marriages conducted abroad. Any marriage held outside Lebanon can be registered at the Lebanese embassy or consulate in the respective country where it took place. Marriages within Lebanon are performed by religious authorities, either Christian or Muslim.

Mixed Marriage Lebanon’s pluralistic society allows for marriages between Muslims and Christians. However, the law governing the marriage varies depending on the authority that performed it, which can lead to complex legal issues concerning divorce, inheritance, and custody.
Requirements Requirements for marriage differ depending on the relevant authority. For Muslim marriages, copies of passports or IDs and blood tests are typically required. Christian authorities, on the other hand, may ask for passports or IDs, birth and baptism certificates. Legal age for marriage in Lebanon ranges from 17 to 18 years, depending on the religious affiliation and the presence of a guardian’s consent.

What about Civil Marriage In Lebanon? Efforts to introduce civil marriage in Lebanon have been ongoing, but thus far, they have not succeeded. Many Lebanese couples seeking civil marriages often choose to marry in nearby countries where it is available.

Divorce Law & Lawyers in Lebanon

Can I get a Divorce in Lebanon and Where?
The complexity of divorce in Lebanon stems from the multitude of communities present in the country. The authority responsible for issuing a divorce depends on the religious court or the civil court that performed the marriage. The divorce process can be different for each religion, leading to a potential conflict between religious and civil jurisdiction.
Conditions for Divorce in Lebanon The conditions for divorce in Lebanon are determined by the laws governing the specific religious authority or court overseeing the case. Conditions can vary widely, and the court may consider various factors before granting a divorce.

Consequences of the Divorce The consequences of divorce are significant and include various aspects such as custody, financial matters, pensions, and inheritance rights. The specifics depend on the governing laws and the individual case.

Inheritance Law in Lebanon

Which Inheritance Law Applies? In Lebanon, inheritance law is determined based on the deceased’s last domicile, regardless of the location of their property. The law provides for reserved portions for specific relatives and heirs.
Is there a Reserved Portion? Lebanese law has established reserved portions for close relatives, ensuring a fair distribution of inheritance. The disposable portion of an estate is what remains after considering these reserved portions. The reserved portions vary based on the relationships between the heirs.
Is it Normal and Advisable to Make a Will? Creating a will is advisable if you wish to specify how your estate is distributed. In the absence of a will, inheritance follows the law’s default rules. Wills can be made through a lawyer, and they can be either authentic or holographic.

During the Lifetime of the Property-Owner, Can Property be Gifted? Gifting property during the owner’s lifetime is allowed, but these gifts are taken into consideration when determining the reserved and disposable portions of the estate upon inheritance.
Problems of Inheritance Inheritance issues may arise due to differences in nationalities or the circumstances of the heirs’ deaths. Complexities may also arise when multiple persons inheriting from one another perish in the same accident.

Foreigners and Differences of Religion Nationality differences do not typically prevent inheritance between Lebanese nationals and foreigners unless the foreigner’s law prohibits Lebanese nationals from inheriting. Likewise, differences in religion usually do not prevent inheritance unless the heir’s law prohibits inheritance based on religious differences.
Understanding family law in Lebanon is essential for individuals navigating marriage, divorce, and inheritance within this diverse and multi-religious society. Legal advice from experienced professionals is often sought to ensure these family matters are addressed appropriately.

“Safeguarding Intellectual Property Rights in Lebanon – Trademarks, Patents, and Copyrights”
Intellectual Property Rights in Lebanon
Lebanon’s historical journey of protecting intellectual property rights has evolved since the introduction of its first intellectual property rights law in 1924. Today, these rights are regulated by Law 75/99, enacted in 1999, bringing Lebanon in line with international agreements and treaties related to intellectual property rights.

Understanding Intellectual Property Rights

Intellectual property rights encompass several categories, and each is essential for safeguarding creative and innovative works. The main categories include:

1. Trademarks: A trademark can be a name, label, design, or any distinctive sign that sets a product apart from others. Trademarks can be registered by individuals or corporate entities, and there are no nationality restrictions. However, foreigners must engage a local agent for representation and registration. Trademark registrations are initially valid for 15 years and can be renewed for another 15 years.
How to Protect a Trademark:
• Registration with the Office of Intellectual Property under the Ministry of Economy.
• The registration opens the door for legal action against trademark infringements.
• Monitoring and examination by Lebanese Customs can help identify potential infringements.
Lebanon passed a law in 2000 to protect patents. To qualify for patent protection, an invention must meet specific criteria:

1. It must be genuinely new and not exist previously.

2. The invention must be inventive.

3. The invention should have industrial applicability.
Ownership of Patents:
• The inventor owns the patent rights.
• If multiple individuals contributed to the invention, patent rights are shared equally, unless specified otherwise.
• In cases where multiple people independently develop the same invention, the first applicant secures patent rights.
Applying for a Patent:
• Submit a request to the Ministry of Economy and Trade, including a description of the invention.
• The invention should not violate public policy or morals.
• The application can be appealed before the Court of Appeal of Beirut.
Duration of a Patent:
• The initial term for a patent is 20 years.
Penalties for Violations:
• Patent violations can lead to criminal charges, highlighting the significance of protecting patents.
Lebanon updated its Copyright Law in 1999, expanding the protection of various creative works, including literary and artistic works, computer software, videos, and more.
Protection of Copyrights:
• Copyright protection extends to a wide range of works.
• Infringements on copyrighted works can lead to criminal penalties and civil compensations for the aggrieved party, emphasizing the strong protection granted by this law.
Understanding the landscape of intellectual property rights in Lebanon is essential for creators, inventors, and entrepreneurs who want to protect their creative works and innovations. Consultation with legal professionals well-versed in intellectual property law is highly recommended for effective protection and enforcement.

“Ensuring Labor and Employment Compliance with Hajj Legal Advisors”
Unpacking Labor and Employment Law
Labor law, often referred to as employment law, acts as a bridge between workers, employers, trade unions, and government bodies. It addresses the complex relationships in the workplace and is born out of the dual necessity for workers to secure better conditions, the freedom to organize (or to work without union affiliation), and the employers’ need to manage labor costs and curb the influence of worker organizations.
Collective Labor Law
Collective labor law revolves around the intricate tripartite relationship between employees, employers, and labor unions. It encompasses the dynamics of collective bargaining, labor disputes, and workers’ unionization rights.
Individual Labor Law
Individual labor law delves into the specific rights of employees within their working environment, often outlined in employment contracts. These rights encompass fair wages, safe working conditions, and protection against discrimination.
Historical Context
Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, the labor movement played a pivotal role in advocating for and enacting laws aimed at safeguarding labor rights. These rights have played an integral role in shaping both the social fabric and economic landscape, especially since the era of the Industrial Revolution.
Hajj Legal Advisors: Your Employment Law Partners
At Hajj Legal Advisors, we specialize in a wide array of matters that revolve around labor and employment law, addressing the multifaceted relationship between workers, employers, and unions.

Our comprehensive services include:

1. Employment Law Compliance: We guide businesses in navigating the complex web of employment laws and regulations, ensuring they remain in full legal compliance.

2. Dispute Resolution: Our expert legal team is adept at managing and resolving disputes that may arise between employers and employees, working towards amicable resolutions.

3. Wage and Hour Consultation: We offer seasoned advice on wage and hour matters, helping employers interpret and adhere to these intricate regulations.

4. Employment Policies and Procedures: We provide invaluable assistance in the creation and implementation of employment policies and procedures that ensure legal compliance while fostering a harmonious work environment.

5. Safeguarding Workers’ Rights: Hajj Legal Advisors is deeply committed to shielding the rights of workers when faced with violations or infringements. We take decisive legal actions to secure and uphold employees’ rights.
Labor and employment law is an ever-evolving field, adapting to the changing needs of the workforce and the complexities of the modern workplace. At Hajj Legal Advisors, our team of accomplished labor and employment attorneys stands ready to provide guidance, protection, and representation for both employers and employees, ensuring their rights and responsibilities are respected and upheld. Contact us today to leverage our extensive experience in labor and employment law.